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Urology

Urology

Who is a Urology Specialist?

Urologists are called doctors who diagnose and treat urinary tract diseases in both men and women. In addition, they also diagnose and treat any diseases of the male reproductive system. For the diseases they treat, when necessary, they apply surgery though only medication is needed sometimes. Urology doctors perform the surgical treatment in cases such as kidney, bladder, prostate and testicular cancer.

The urinary tract system involves kidneys where urine starts to be formed by filtrating the blood. Next come ureters, both of which transfer urine from kidneys to urinary bladder. It stores the urine for a certain period of time, until you should clear it off from the body through urethra, voluntarily in a socially reasonable time. The urethra is the last part of urinary tractus through which urine is expelled from the body. Urologists are concerned with the treatment of any disease that occurs in the organs throughout this system.

The main parts of the urinary tract system are:

Kidneys: They form the urine by filtering the blood off the substances like urea and other toxins.

Ureters: They are tubular organs that allow urine to flow from the kidneys to the bladder.

Bladder: It is a pouch-shaped storage organ that is used to keep the urine formed voluntarily as much as necessary.

Urethra: It is the tubular organ that carries urine from the bladder out of the body. It has a very short length in women.

Adrenal glands: Hormone-secreting organs, also known as the adrenal glands, located in the upper part of both kidneys. Glands that secrete adrenaline, cortisone and mineralocorticoid hormones.

Apart from the urinary tract system, urologists also treat all parts of the male reproductive system.

Male reproductive organs

Penis: It is the organ that contains urethra, which allows urine to be excreted out of the body, and also allows sperm, ie semen, to get out of the body.

Prostate: It is the organ that is immediately located under the bladder, which contributes to the formation semen by giving additional special fluid.

Testicles: They are a pair of oval shaped organs located in scrotum which are main responsable tissues in production of testesterone and also of sperm cells.

What is Urology?

Urology is the medical department that deals with urinary tract and male reproductive system diseases and manage their treatments. As in other medical branches, it is possible to see urologists concentrating on some sub-disease groups in urology. Below are the sub-branches that are worth mentioning.

Female urology: the part dealing with diseases of the reproductive and urinary tract in women

Male infertility: focuses on problems that prevent a man from concieving a baby with his partner.

Neurourology: the part that focuses on urination difficulties caused by nervous system problems.

Pediatric urology: the part that focuses on problems with urinary system problems in childhood patients.

Urological oncology: The part that focuses on urinary system cancers, including bladder, kidneys, prostate and testicles.

Diseases of the urology department

In men:

  • Bladder, kidney, penis, testicles, adrenal glands and prostate cancers
  • Prostate enlargement
  • Erection problem (penile prosthesis application in necessary cases) or premature ejaculation
  • Infertility
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Kidney stones
  • Kidney diseases
  • Prostatitis (prostate inflammation)
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Varicocele

In women:

  • Urinary bladder prolapse, vesicocel
  • Cancers of the bladder, kidney and adrenal glands
  • Interstitial cystitis
  • Kidney stones
  • Hyperactive bladder
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Urinary incontinence, urinary incontinence

In children:

  • Bed-wetting
  • Obstructions and other problems of urinary tract structures (Hypospadias, penile curvature)
  • Undescended testicles

Some methods used in the diagnosis of Urological Diseases

Imaging tests: such as CT scan, MRI scan, or ultrasound serve to show urinary tract, bladder, and walls, kidneys, prostate gland, testicles in detail.

Cystogram: It is the process of taking an x-ray of your bladder. It is used to evaluate the inside and borders of the urinary bladder, the tumor or polyps on the walls by filling into the bladder a radio-contrast fluid that can be seen under fluoroscopy.

Cystoscopy: This procedure uses a thin and flexible video endoscopy to visualize inside the urethra and bladder.

Uroflowmetry: It is a test evaluating how quickly urine leaves your body while urinating and the amount of urine remaining after urination.

Urine culture: Urine culture can be performed to determine the presence of bacteria that cause urinary tract infections and which antibiotics they are sensitive to.

Urodynamic tests: They can perform urodynamic tests to measure the pressure inside the bladder and its volume when fully distended.

Interventional procedures and surgeries performed by urologists are as follows:

  • Bladder, kidney or prostate biopsies
  • Cystectomy: surgery to remove the bladder due to cancer
  • ESWL: extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy is applied to break up kidney stones so that patients get rid of them easily.
  • Kidney transplant: surgery to replace a diseased kidney with a healthy kidney
  • procedures to relieve obstructions
  • Repair of damage caused by injury
  • Repair of congenitally malformed urinary tract organs
  • Prostatectomy: surgery involving removing all or part of the prostate gland to treat prostate cancer
  • A sling procedure: operation to suspend urethra by using organic mesh to support the urethra and treat urinary incontinence
  • TUR operation: transurethral prostate resection in which excess tissue of enlarged prostate is removed away.
  • Ureteroscopy: the removal of stones in the kidneys and ureter with an endoscopy device
  • Vasectomy: a surgery to prevent pregnancy which involves cutting and tying the vas deferens.

When should we see a urologist?

  • blood in the urine
  • frequent urination or urgent need to urinate
  • pain in your lower back, pelvis, or flank
  • Pain or burning when urinating
  • trouble urinating
  • urine leakage
  • weak urine flow, dribbling

The presence of the following complaints in male patients should be a reason for applying to a urologist:

  • decreased sexual desire
  • a lump in the testicle
  • failure in erection or trouble keeping an erection