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Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Cancer

Colorectal Cancer


Colorectal cancers are the most common of all gastrointestinal system cancers. It covers cancers of the colon, rectum, cecum, appendix and anus. Every year, 1,000,000 new cases are diagnosed in the world. It ranks 4th among cancers diagnosed in the USA (10-15% of all cancers are colorectal cancer). 90-95% are of the adenocarcinoma type. Stool blood, changes in bowel movements, weight loss and tiredness are symptoms that suggest colon cancer. Advanced age, male gender, diet, genetics, inflammatory bowel diseases, smoking, alcohol, chemical carcinogens are risk factors for colon cancer. 1/3 of all colon cancers are alive; 2/3 of them are located in the left column. It is observed in the cecum/appendage region (3%), in the ascending colon (9%), in the transverse colon (11%), in the descending colon (6%), in the sigmoid colon (25%), in the rectum (30%).

Clinic

Manifestations differ contingent upon the area and size of the tumour. In right colon diseases: Abdominal agony, completion, dying, frailty, shortcoming, weight reduction. In left colon malignant growths: Bowel deterrent, stoppage, diminished stool sum, dying. 90-95% of colorectal tumors are adenocarcinoma. As indicated by their plainly visible appearance, 4 kinds of colorectal malignant growths have been distinguished: Polypoid, Ulcerative, Annular, Penetrating. 

Diagnosis

Conclusion of colon malignancy is made by biopsy taken from dubious regions during colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy. Hemogram and routine biochemical examination, mystery blood in the stool, colon x-beam, colonoscopy, ultrasonography, CT, MRI, PET can be utilized in the analysis. Tumour markers, for example, CEA and CA 19.9 are utilized to check whether a larger number of patients are reacting to treatment than a conclusion. 

As referenced over, the phase of malignant growth is the main basis, both in deciding treatment and in light of treatment. Therefore, organizing tests are performed after the disease is analyzed. Various tests can be utilized for organizing colon malignancy, nonetheless, once in a while, it must be arranged after a medical procedure.

Arranging 

Stage 1: Cancer is restricted to mucosa as it were. It didn't surpass the gut divider or rectum. 

Stage 2: Cancer cells have crossed the mucous layer of the intestinal divider and spread to the submucosa. Yet, there is no lymph hub contribution. 

Stage 3: Cancer has spread to lymph hubs yet has not performed inaccessible organ metastasis. 

Stage 4: Cancer has spread to organs and lymph hubs from the digestive system. Organ associations, for example, lung or liver are available. 

TREATMENT 

Therapy of colon malignancy differs as indicated by the phase of the illness. Fundamentally, careful treatment, chemotherapy and radiotherapy can be applied. Tasks acted in the beginning phases: resection of the polyp during colonoscopy, endoscopic mucosal resection, insignificantly obtrusive medical procedure. Activities for obtrusive colon malignant growth: halfway colectomy, lymph hub resection. Distinctive careful methods can be applied for later stages. Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and focused on medication treatment are techniques utilized in colon disease treatment.

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